On 7 September 2013, at a massive gathering in a village outside Muzaffarnagar city, Hindu leaders from the dominant Jat community addressed a crowd of over 100,000 people. They had gathered to discuss the recent killings of two Hindu men in an altercation with Muslim men. The altercation had also prompted large gatherings previously, including by Muslim men, in other locations.
Inflammatory speeches were made, allegedly by Bharatiya Janata Party leaders, instigating Hindus to take revenge for the killings. The gathering was followed by an outbreak of violence in the neighboring districts. Over 60 people were killed in the clashes, which ended only after three days. Tens of thousands of Muslim families from about 140 villages were forced to flee their homes and take shelter in relief camps.